Citicoline for traumatic brain injury: a systematic review & meta-analysis


  • Ali Meshkini Department of Neurosurgery, Neuroscience Research Center, , Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
  • Mohammad Meshkini Tabriz University of Medical Sciences (Bio-Medicine), Tabriz, Iran.
  • Homayoun Sadeghi-Bazargani Road Traffic injury Research Center, Department of Statistics and Epidemiology, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.


Traumatic brain injury, Head injury, Neuroprotective agents, Citicoline, Glasgow outcome Scale, Review, Meta-analysis


Background: Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity especially in young ages. Despite over 30 years of using Neuroprotective agents for TBI management, there is no absolute recommended agent for the condition yet.

Methods: This study is a part of a scoping review thesis on "Neuroprotective agents using for Traumatic Brain Injury: a systematic review & meta-analyses"; which had a wide proposal keywords and ran in "Cochrane CENTRAL", "MedLine/PubMed", "SCOPUS", "Thomson Reuters Web of Science", "", "Barket Foundation", and "" databases up to September 06, 2015. This study limits the retrieved search results only to those which used citicoline for TBI management. The included Randomized Clinical Trials' (RCTs) were assessed for their quality of reporting by adapting CONSORT-checklist prior to extracting their data into meta-analysis. Meta-analyses of this review were conducted by Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) in acute TBI patients and total neuropsychological assessments in both acute and chronic TBI management, mortalities and adverse-effects.

Results: Four RCTs were retrieved and included in this review with 1196 participants (10 were chronic TBI impaired patients); analysis of 1128 patients for their favorable GOS outcomes in two studies showed no significant difference between the study groups; however, neuropsychological outcomes were significantly better in placebo/control group of 971 patients of three studies. Mortality rates and adverse-effects analysis based on two studies with 1429 patients showed no significant difference between the study groups. However, two other studies have neither mortality nor adverse effects reports due to their protocol.

Conclusions: Citicoline use for acute TBI seems to have no field of support anymore, whereas it may have some benefits in improving the neuro-cognitive state in chronic TBI patients. It's also recommended to keep in mind acute interventions like Psychological First Aid (PFA) during acute TBI management.




How to Cite

Meshkini, A., Meshkini, M., & Sadeghi-Bazargani, H. (2016). Citicoline for traumatic brain injury: a systematic review & meta-analysis. Journal of Injury and Violence Research, 9(1), 41–50. Retrieved from



Review Article

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 > >>