A comprehensive study on maxillofacial trauma conducted in Yamunanagar, India
Keywords:Maxillofacial Trauma, Fractures, Clinical Study
BACKGROUND: The Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, D.A.V [C] Dental College and Hospital, Yamuna Nagar, Haryana, India conducted a study on patients with maxillofacial fractures in a time span of seven years (2003-2010). The purpose of this study was to evaluate their aetiology, incidence, patterns and different modalities employed for management. METHODS: In this study, 740 patients with 1054 fractures were evaluated clinically and radiographically, based on which closed reduction and open reduction was undertaken. Review of patient records included: Age, sex, time, mechanism and etiology of injury, history of bleeding, unconsciousness and prior first aid, type of vehicle and use of preventive measures, type of fracture and treatment modalities. RESULTS: Road traffic accidents accounted for highest number of fractures predominantly occurring in the age group of 21-30 years (38.3%)1,2. Males incurred more fractures with a male female ratio of 4.2: 1.Mandible was the most commonly fractured bone with parasymphysis being the commonest affected site.76.66% patients had associated head injury and 15.68 % had history of unconsciousness. Open reduction and internal fixation was the preferred modality for mandible whereas the mid face fractures were treated more often by closed methods. CONCLUSIONS: Injuries occurred more commonly in 20 – 40 age range with road traffic accident being the major etiological factor. Majority of the patients were driving two wheelers and most were under the effect of alcohol. Most of the injuries occurred during night and road traffic accidents (71.89%) were found to be the major etiological factor. Out of 532 road traffic accidents, 490 patients (66.2%) were on two wheelers, among whom 49(10%) were wearing helmet. In the mandible, fractures occurred most commonly in the parasymphyseal region (224, 30.2%), and out of the 314 fractures of the middle third showed, 155 (49.4%) ZMC. OPG was the most commonly advised Xray. With regard to treatment modalities, 36.8% of all the mandibular fractures (740) were treated by closed reduction, 62.6% were treated using open reduction and 0.5% was under observation only.
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