Background: Over the years, Uganda has been one of the low and middle-income countries bearing the heaviest burden of road traffic incidents (RTI). Since the proclamation of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 - 2020, a number of measures have been taken to reduce the burden. However, they ought to be premised on existing evidence-based research; therefore, the present review ventures to report the most recent five-year trend of RTI in Uganda.
Methods: Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Data Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was employed. Using a thematic analysis, the articles were grouped into: trauma etiology, trauma care, mortality, cost, trauma registry and communication, intervention and treatment for the final analysis.
Results: Of the nineteen articles that were identified to be relevant to the study, the etiology of RTI was inevitably observed to be an important cause of injuries in Uganda. The risk factors cut across: the crash type, injury physiology, cause, victims, setting, age, economic status, and gender. All studies that were reviewed have advanced varying recommendations aimed at responding to the trend of RTIs in Uganda, of which some are in tandem with the five pillars of the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011 - 2020.
Conclusion: Peripheral measures of the burden of RTIs in Uganda were undertaken within a five-year timeframe (2011-2015) of implementing the United Nations Decade of Action for Road Safety. The measures however, ought to be scaled-up on robust evidence based research available from all the concerned stakeholders beyond Kampala or central region to other parts of Uganda.
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